Land and Environment Court (NSW)  
  Established in 1979 as a specialist court to deal with disputes involving environmental and planning law. Its power is derived from the NSW Parliament and it has capacity to hear matters arising under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (NSW), the Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997 (NSW), the Land Acquisitions (Just Terms Compensation) Act 1991 (NSW) and the Contaminated Land Management Act 1997 (NSW), among others. The Court has developed unique processes by which disputes are heard, such as on-site hearings for smaller less complex matters and using commissioners who are not necessarily legally trained. It also has capacity to hear matters which are related to or 'ancillary' to the planning or environmental dispute before it. Appeals from the Land and Environment Court are to the NSW Court of Appeal.